Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2018, Page: 1-7
The Study of Effect of Amphetamine on Passive Avoidance Learning in Wistar Male Rats
Milad Rezazadeh, Department of Biology, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Mehdi Ahmadifar, Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, Tehran, Iran; Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
Meysam Ahmadi Manesh, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad-e Kavus, Iran
Received: Jan. 25, 2018;       Accepted: Feb. 16, 2018;       Published: May 29, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.aap.20180301.11      View  818      Downloads  78
Abstract
Methamphetamine is sometimes prescribed by doctors for specific diseases that with the entering the central nervous system caused by a sudden release of categulamine and particularly dopamine in the brain. It stimulates brain cells, enhancing aggressive mood and increased body movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate, has been the effects of methamphetamine on passive avoidance learning and memory in adult male Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats of rats in the weight range (180-220gr) (N=6) was Divided into healthy group - control group (saline received) and dose received groups (1.5, 3, 5 mg/kg). Half an hour before the test, intraperitoneally injection was done and after the test, every day at specific times for long-term memory test for one week Injection was done. Results have shown that the incidence of passive avoidance between healthy and control groups there was no significant difference but there is a significantly decreased between the control group and the group receiving methamphetamine. Increase learning and short-term memory and reduced long term memory and passive avoidance learning mechanism is probably due to the involvement of the hippocampus in learning and memory consolidation and short term memory convert to long-term memory could potential mechanism of methamphetamine-induced damage to hippocampal neurons, particularly CA1 neurons. Meanwhile, short-term memory-enhancing effects of methamphetamine can result in Increase cortisol is also a short-term strengthens to the memory but in long term it will damage and weaken the memory.
Keywords
Methamphetamine, Passive Avoidance Learning, Male Rat
To cite this article
Milad Rezazadeh, Mehdi Ahmadifar, Meysam Ahmadi Manesh, The Study of Effect of Amphetamine on Passive Avoidance Learning in Wistar Male Rats, Advances in Applied Physiology. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2018, pp. 1-7. doi: 10.11648/j.aap.20180301.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Hansson, O., Zetterberg, Buchhave, P., Londos, E., Blennow, K., and Minthon, L., 2006. Association between CSF biomarkers and incipient Azheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a follow-up study. Lancet Neurol5, 228-234.
[2]
Gonçalves J, Baptista S, Olesen MV, Fontes-Ribeiro C, Malva JO, Woldbye DP, Silva AP. 2012. Methamphetamine-induced changes in the mice hippocampal neuropeptide Y system: implications for memory impairment. J Neurochem; 123 (6):1041-53. doi: 10.1111/jnc.12052. Epub 2012 Nov1.
[3]
Elmi, A. S., 1983. The chewing of khat in Somalia. J. Ethnopharmacol. 8, 163–176.
[4]
Assuncao, M., Santos-Marques, M. J., Carvalho, F., and Andrade, J. P., 2010. Green tea averts age-dependent decline of hippocampalsignaling systems reated antioxidant defenses and survival. Free RadicBiol Med 48, 831-838.
[5]
Assuncao, M., Santos-Marques, M. J., Carvalho, F., Lukoyanov, N. V., and Andrade, J. P., 2009. Chronic green tea consumption prevents age-relaared changes in rat hipppcampal formation. Neurobiol Aging.
[6]
Banks, W. A., and Farr, S. A., 2004. Antiaging methods and medicines for the memory. ClinGeriatr Med 20, 317-328.
[7]
Barrett KE, Barman SM, Boitano S, Brooks HL Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology. Trans: Bigdeli MR, Naderan M. Tehran: Teymourzadeh; 2002: 2 (2), 136-47.
[8]
Bernacer J, Corlett PR, Ramachandra P, McFarlane B, Turner DC, Clark L, Robbins TW, Fletcher PC, Murray GK, 2013. Methamphetamine-Induced Disruption of Frontostriatal Reward Learning Signals: Relation to Psychotic Symptoms. Am J Psychiatry.
[9]
Barnes, C., 1998. Memory changes during normal aging: neurobiological correlates. Neurobiology of learning and memory, 247-287.
[10]
Bergman, J., Yasar, S., Winger, G., 2001. Psychomotor stimulant effects of Berry, M. D., 2004. Mammalian central nervous system traceamines. Pharmacologic amphetamines, physiologic neuromodulators. J. Neurochem. 90, 257–271.
[11]
Yin, S. T., Tang, M. L., Su, L., Chen, L., Hu, P., Wang, H. L., Wang, M., and Ruan, D. Y., 2008. Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on lead-induced oxidative damage. Toxicology 249, 45-54.
[12]
Zarrindast MR, Shendy MM, Ahmadi S. Nitric Oxide modulates state dependency induced by lithium in an inhibitory avoidance task in mice. behavepharmacol 2007; 18:289-95.
[13]
Zarrindast, M. R., Hajian-Heydari, A., & Hoseini-Nia, T. (1992). Characterization of dopamine receptors involved in apomorphine-induced pecking in pigeons. General Pharmacology, 23, 427-430.
[14]
Lathe, R., 2001. Hormones and the hippocampus. J Endocrinol 169, 205-231.
[15]
Shoblock, J. R., Maisonneuve, I. M., Glick, S. D., 2003a. Differences between D-methamphetamine and D-amphetamine in rats: working memory, tolerance, and extinction. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 170, 150–156.
[16]
Demian Barbas, L. D., 1, 2 Vincent F. Castellucci, 2, 3 Thomas J. Carew, 4, 5 and a. p. Marinesco4 (2003). "Multiple Serotonergic Mechanisms Contributing to Sensitization in Aplysia: Evidence of Diverse Serotonin Receptor Subtypes." learnmem 10: 373-386.
[17]
Cadet, J. L., Jayanthi, S., Deng, X., (2003). Speed Kills: Cellular and Molecular Bases of Methamphetamine-induced Nerve Terminal Degeneration and Neuronal Apoptosis, FASEB J. 17, 1775-1788.
[18]
Rendeiro, C., Spencer. J. P., Vauzour, D., Butler, L. T., Ellis, J. A., and Williams, C. M., 2009. The impact of flavonoids on spatial memory in rodents: from behavior to underlying hippocampal mechanisms. Genes Nutr.
[19]
Kosheleff AR, Rodriguez D, O'Dell SJ, Marshall JF, Izquierdo A. 2012. Comparison of single-dose and extended methamphetamine administration on reversal learning in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Dec; 224 (3):459-67. doi: 10.1007/s00213-012-2774-1. Epub 2012 Jul 4.
[20]
Cao G, Zhu J, Zhong Q, Shi C, Dang Y, Han W, Liu X, Xu M, Chen T. 2012. Distinct roles of methamphetamine in modulating spatial memory consolidation, retrieval, reconsolidation and the accompanying changes of ERK and CREB activation in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Department of Forensic Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, PR China.
[21]
Introini-Collison, I. B., Saghafi, D., Novack, G. D., & Mc Gaugh, G. L. (1992). Memory-enhancing effects of post-training dipivefrin and epinephrine: Involvement of peripheral and central adrenergic receptors. Brain Research, 572, 81-86.
[22]
Mattay, V. S., Goldberg, T. E., Fera, F., Hariri, A. R., Tessitore, A., Egan, M. F., Kolachana, B., Callicott, J. H., Weinberger, D. R., 2003. Catechol O-methyltransferase val158-met genotype and individual variation in the brain response to amphetamine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 6186–6191.
Browse journals by subject